Glossary

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169.254.1.1

IP address default in Canopy modules.

802.11

IEEE 802.11, is the wireless local area network (WLAN) standard developed by the IEEE LAN/MAN Standards Committee (IEEE 802).
The terms 802.11 and WiFi are often used interchangeably , although strictly speaking this is not correct. WiFi is an industry driven interoperability certification that is based on a subset of 802.11. And in some cases, market demand has lead The WiFi Alliance to begin certifying products before amendments to the 802.11 standard are complete. (see also 'WiFi')

A

Access Point

This is normally the radio that is placed on a tower to distribute signal to your subscribers.

Access Point Cluster

Two to six Access Point Modules that together distribute network or Internet services to a community of 1,200 or fewer subscribers. Each Access Point Module covers a 60° sector. This cluster covers as much as 360°. Also known as AP cluster.

Access Point Module

See 'Access Point'

Access Point module address

Definition unclear

ACK

See Acknowledgment Code

Acknowledgment Code

In computing, an ACK (also known as an acknowledgment code) is a signal passed between communicating processes or computers to signify acknowledgement, or receipt of response, as part of a communications protocol. For instance, ACK packets are used in the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to acknowledge the receipt of SYN packets when establishing a connection, data packets while a connection is being used, and FIN packets when terminating a connection.

ACT/4

Second-from-left LED in the module. In the operating mode, this LED is lit when data activity is present on the Ethernet link. In the aiming mode for a Subscriber Module or a Backhaul timing slave, this LED is part of a bar graph that indicates the quality of the RF link.

Advanced Encryption Standard

Over-the-air link option that provides extremely secure wireless connections. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) uses 128-bit secret keys as directed by the government of the U.S.A. AES is not exportable and requires a special AP to process the large keys.

AES

See 'Advanced Encryption Standard'

Animal Farm

A gathering for and by Canopy WISP's without the intervention or permission of Motorola. First Animal Farm was held in January of 2007 in Salt Laks City Utah.

AP

See Access Point

APA

See Access Point module address

Attenuation

Reduction of signal strength caused by the travel from the transmitter to the receiver, and caused by any object between. In the absence of objects between, a signal that has a short wavelength experiences a high degree of attenuation nevertheless.

Authentication Key

Software key that correlates to the random number that the Bandwidth and Authentication Manager (BAM) server generates and sends in a challenge through the AP to the SM. The network operator can create and, at some security risk, send this key over the air to the SM. The SQL database in the BAM server correlates this key to QoS information about the SM. The format of this key is 32 hexadecimal characters of 0 to 9 and a to f, padded with leading zeroes in Release 4.2.3 and later. This key must be unique to the individual SM.

B

Backhaul Module

A module that provides point-to-point connectivity as either a standalone link or a link to an Access Point cluster through a selected Access Point Module. See also Backhaul Timing Master and Backhaul Timing Slave. (see also BH)

BAM

See Bandwidth and Authentication Manager

Bandwidth and Authentication Manager

Bandwidth and Authentication Manager. A Canopy software product that operates on a Linux server to manage bandwidth, high-priority channel, and VLAN settings individually for each registered Subscriber Module. This software also provides secure Subscriber Module authentication and user-specified encryption keys. The upgrade path for this product is to Prizm Release 2.0 or later.

Bit Error Rate

The ratio of incorrect data received to correct data received.

BER

See Bit Error Rate

BH

See Backhaul Module

C

Carrier to Interference Ratio

Ratio of intended signal (carrier) to unintended signal (interference).

C/I Ratio

See Carrier to Interference Ratio

CIR

See 'Committed Information Rate'

Cluster Management Module

Module that provides power, GPS timing, and networking connections for an AP cluster. Also known as CMM. If this CMM is connected to a Backhaul Module, then this CMM is the central point of connectivity for the entire site.

Color Code Field

Module parameter that identifies the other modules with which communication is allowed. The range of values is 0 to 255. When set at 0, the Color Code does not restrict communications with any other module.

Committed Information Rate

For an SM or specified group of SMs, a level of bandwidth that can be guaranteed to never fall below a specified minimum. In the Canopy implementation, this is controlled by the Low Priority Uplink CIR, Low Priority Downlink CIR, High Priority Uplink CIR, and High Priority Downlink CIR parameters.

CMM

See Cluster Management Module

CPE

See Customer-premises equipment

Customer-premises equipment

Customer-premises equipment or customer-provided equipment (CPE) is any terminal and associated equipment and inside wiring located at a subscriber's premises and connected with a carrier's telecommunication channel(s) at the Demarcation Point.
CPE generally refers to telephones, DSL modems or cable modems, or purchased set-top boxes for use with communication service providers' services. Also included are key phone systems and most private branch exchanges. Excluded from CPE are overvoltage protection equipment and pay telephones.
Cellular carriers may sometimes internally refer to cellular phones a customer has purchased without a subsidy or from a third party as Customer Provided Equipment.(see also 'SM')

D

dBm

dBm is an abbreviation for the power ratio in decibel (dB) of the measured power referenced to one milliwatt (mW). It is used in radio, microwave and fiber optic networks as a convenient measure of absolute power because of its capability to express both very large and very small values in a short form. dBm (or dBmW) and dBW are independent of impedance (as opposed to dBV which is dependent, for example).
Since it is referenced to the watt, it is an absolute unit, used when measuring absolute power. It should not be confused with dB, a dimensionless unit, which is used when measuring the ratio between two values, such as signal-to-noise ratio. (see also 'Decibel')

Decibel

The decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit of measurement that expresses the magnitude of a physical quantity (usually power) relative to a specified or implied reference level. Its logarithmic nature allows very large or very small ratios to be represented by a convenient number, in a similar manner to scientific notation. Being essentially a ratio, it is a dimensionless unit. Decibels are useful for a wide variety of measurements in acoustics, physics, electronics and other disciplines.
An increase of 3 dB corresponds to an approximate doubling of power. (In exact terms, the factor is 103/10, or 1.9953, about 0.25% different from exactly 2.) Since in many electrical applications power is proportional to the square of voltage, an increase of 3 dB implies an increase in voltage by a factor of approximately √2, or about 1.414. Similarly, an increase of 6 dB corresponds to approximately four times the power and twice the voltage, and so on. (In exact terms the power factor is 106/10, or about 3.9811, a relative error of about 0.5%.) See the formulas below for further details.
When used as a measure of acoustic noise in the atmosphere, a 3 dB increment (approximately double the sound power) is also approximately double the perceived noise to an average human observer[citation needed] in the normal hearing range of frequency and sound power.(see also 'dBm')

Demarc

See Demarcation Point

Demarcation Point

The Demarcation Point, or Demarc, is a point established in a building or complex to separate customer equipment from company equipment. Normally a wiring closet or box on the outside of the premise.

Differentiated Services

Differentiated Services, consistent with RFC 2474. A byte in the type of service (TOS) field of packets whose values correlates to the channel on which the packet should be sent. The value is a numeric code point. Canopy maps each of 64 code points to values of 0 through 7. Three of these code points have fixed values, and the remaining 61 are settable. Values of 0 through 3 map to the lowpriority channel; 4 through 7 to the high-priority channel. The mappings are the same as 802.1p VLAN priorities. Among the settable parameters, the values are set in the AP for all downlinks within the sector and in the SM for each uplink.

DiffServ

See Differentiated Services

DNS

See Domain Name System

Domain Name System

On the Internet, the Domain Name System (DNS) associates various sorts of information with so-called domain names; most importantly, it serves as the "phone book" for the Internet: it translates human-readable computer hostnames, e.g. en.wikipedia.org, into the IP addresses that networking equipment needs for delivering information. It also stores other information such as the list of mail exchange servers that accept email for a given domain. In providing a worldwide keyword-based redirection service, the Domain Name System is an essential component of contemporary Internet use.

E

Electronic Serial Number

Hardware address that the factory assigns to the module for identification in the Data Link layer interface of the Open Systems Interconnection system. This address serves as an electronic serial number. Same as Media Access Control (MAC) Address.

Element Pack

A license for Prizm management of a multi-point sector and covers the AP and up to 200 SMs, a backhaul link, or an Powerline LV link.

ESN

See 'Electronic Serial Number'

F

FPGA

Field-programmable Gate Array. An array of logic, relational data, and wiring data that is factory programmed and can be reprogrammed.

Frame Spreading

Transmission of a beacon in only frames where the receiver expects a beacon (rather than in every frame). This avoids interference from transmissions that are not intended for the receiver.

Frame Timing Pulse Gated Field

Toggle parameter that prevents or allows the module to continue to propagate GPS sync timing when the module no longer receives the timing.

FSK

Frequency Shift Keying, a variation of frequency modulation to transmit data, in which two or more frequencies are used.

G

Global Positioning System

Network of satellites that provides absolute time to networks on earth, which use the time signal to synchronize transmission and reception cycles (to avoid interference) and to provide reference for troubleshooting activities.

GPS

See 'Global Positioning System'

GPS/3

Third-from-left LED in the module. In the operating mode for an Access Point Module or Backhaul timing master, this LED is continuously lit as the module receives sync pulse. In the operating mode for a Subscriber Module or a Backhaul timing slave, this LED flashes on and off to indicate that the module is not registered. In the aiming mode for a Subscriber Module or a Backhaul timing slave, this LED is part of a bar graph that indicates the quality of the RF link.

H

High-priority Channel

Channel that supports low-latency traffic (such as Voice over IP) over low-latency traffic (such as standard web traffic and file downloads). To recognize the latency tolerance of traffic, this channel reads the IPv4 Type of Service Low Latency bit.

I

IGP

See Interior Gateway Protocol

Industrial, Scientific, and Medical

Industrial, Scientific, and Medical Equipment radio frequency band, in the 900-MHz, 2.4-GHz, and 5.8-GHz ranges.

Interior Gateway Protocol

An interior gateway protocol (IGP) is a routing protocol that is used within an autonomous system.
In contrast an exterior gateway protocol is for determining network reachability between autonomous systems (AS) and makes use of IGPs to resolve route within an AS.

ISM

See Industrial, Scientific, and Medical

J

Jitter

Jitter is an unwanted variation of one or more signal characteristics, such as the interval between successive pulses, the amplitude of successive cycles, or the frequency or phase of successive cycles. Jitter is a significant factor in the design of almost all communications links (e.g. USB, PCI-e, SATA, OC-48).

K

L

Line-of-sight

Line-of-sight propagation refers to electro-magnetic radiation traveling in a straight line. The rays are therefore blocked by obstructions and cannot travel over the horizon.
Radio signals, like all electromagnetic radiation, usually travel in straight lines. However, at low frequencies (below approximately 2 MHz or so) diffraction effects cause significant ray bending, allowing ray bundles to partially follow the Earth's curvature, thus enabling AM radio signals in low-noise environments to be received well after the transmitting antenna has dropped below the horizon. Additionally, frequencies between approximately 1 and 30 MHz, can be refracted by the ionosphere, thus giving radio transmissions in this range a potentially global reach (see shortwave radio).
However, at higher frequencies, neither of these effects apply, and so any obstruction between the transmitting and receiving antenna will block the signal, just like the light that the eye senses. Therefore, as the ability to visually sight a transmitting antenna (with regards to the limitations of the eye's resolution) roughly corresponds with the ability to receive a signal from it, the propagation characteristic of high-frequency radio is called "line-of-sight" as per radio wave propagation is called as "radio horizon".
In practice, the propagation characteristics of these radio waves vary substantially depending on the exact frequency and the strength of the transmitted signal (a function of both the transmitter and the antenna characteristics). Broadcast FM radio, at comparatively low frequencies of around 100 MHz using immensely-powerful transmitters, easily propagates through buildings and forests.

LOS

See Line-of-sight

M

MAC

See Media Access Control

Media Access Control

The Media Access Control (MAC) or Electronic Serial Number (ESN) data communication protocol sub-layer, also known as the Medium Access Control, is a part of the data link layer specified in the seven-layer OSI model (layer 2). It provides addressing and channel access control mechanisms that makes it possible for several terminals or network nodes to communicate within a multipoint network, typically a local area network (LAN) or metropolitan area network (MAN). A MAC protocol is not required in full-duplex point-to-point communication. In single channel point-to-point communications full-duplex can be emulated. This emulation can be considered a MAC layer.
The MAC layer provides an addressing mechanism called physical address or MAC address. This is a unique serial number assigned to each network adapter, making it possible to deliver data packets to a destination within a subnetwork, i.e. a physical network without routers, for example an Ethernet network.

N

NACK

See Negative-acknowledge character

Negative-acknowledge character

In telecommunications, a negative-acknowledge character (NAK) is a transmission control character sent by a station as a negative response to the station with which the connection has been set up.

O

OSPF

See Open Shortest Path First

Open Shortest Path First

The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is a hierarchical interior gateway protocol (IGP) for routing in Internet Protocol, using a link-state in the individual areas that make up the hierarchy. A computation based on Dijkstra's algorithm is used to calculate the shortest path tree inside each area.

P

POE

See Power over Ethernet

Power over Ethernet

Acronym for Power over Ethernet. Canopy uses two of the four pairs of a CAT-5 cable to supply power to the radio and the other two pairs for data transmission.

Q

QoS

See Quality of Service

Quality of Service

Quality of service (QoS), in the fields of packet-switched networks and computer networking, the traffic engineering term Quality of Service refers to resource reservation control mechanisms. Quality of Service can provide different priority to different users or data flows, or guarantee a certain level of performance to a data flow in accordance with requests from the application program or the internet service provider policy. Quality of Service guarantees are important if the network capacity is limited, for example in cellular data communication, especially for real-time streaming multimedia applications, for example voice over IP and IP-TV, since these often require fixed bit rate and are delay sensitive.
A network or protocol that supports Quality of Service may agree on a traffic contract with the application software and reserve capacity in the network nodes, for example during a session establishment phase. During the session it may monitor the achieved level of performance, for example the data rate and delay, and dynamically control scheduling priorities in the network nodes. It may release the reserved capacity during a tear down phase.
A best-effort network or service does not support Quality of Service.

R

Received Signal Strength Indication

RSSI is an acronym for Received Signal Strength Indication. RSSI is a measurement of the received radio signal strength (energy integral, not the quality).

RSSI

See Received Signal Strength Indication

S

Simple Mail Transport Protocol

SMTP is a relatively simple, text-based protocol, where one or more recipients of a message are specified (and in most cases verified to exist) and then the message text is transferred. It is a client-server protocol, where the client transmits an email message to the server. Either an end-user's email client, a.k.a. MUA (Mail User Agent), or a relaying server's MTA (Mail Transfer Agents) can act as an SMTP client.

Simple Network Management Protocol

The simple network management protocol (SNMP) forms part of the internet protocol suite as defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). SNMP is used by network management systems to monitor network-attached devices for conditions that warrant administrative attention. It consists of a set of standards for network management, including an Application Layer protocol, a database schema, and a set of data objects.
SNMP exposes management data in the form of variables on the managed systems, which describe the system configuration. These variables can then be queried (and sometimes set) by managing applications.
SNMP Uses UDP ports 160 and 161 for transfer of data.

SM

See Subscriber Module

SMTP

See Simple Mail Transport Protocol

SNMP

See Simple Network Management Protocol

Subscriber Module

Subscriber Unit- This is the radio that goes on the customers premise, also referred to as Customer-premises equipment (CPE).

T

TCP

See Transmission Control Protocol

Transmission Control Protocol

The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite, often simply referred to as TCP/IP. Using TCP, applications on networked hosts can create connections to one another, over which they can exchange streams of data using Stream Sockets. Unlike the UDP protocol this protocol guarantees reliable and in-order delivery of data from sender to receiver. TCP also distinguishes data for multiple connections by concurrent applications (e.g., Web server and e-mail server) running on the same host.
TCP supports many of the Internet's most popular application protocols and resulting applications, including the World Wide Web, e-mail, File Transfer Protocol and Secure Shell.

TOS

See Type of Service

Type of Service

The TOS byte in the IPv4 header has had various purposes over the years, and has been defined in different ways by five different RFCs. (RFC 791, RFC 1122, RFC 1349, RFC 2474, and RFC 3168.) The modern definition of the TOS byte is a six-bit Differentiated Services Code Point and a two-bit Explicit Congestion Notification field. For a full history of the TOS byte, see section 22 of RFC 3168.
See also Quality of Service.

U

UDP

See User Datagram Protocol

User Datagram Protocol

User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. Using UDP, programs on networked computers can send short messages sometimes known as datagrams (using Datagram Sockets) to one another. UDP is sometimes called the Universal Datagram Protocol.
UDP does not guarantee reliability or ordering in the way that TCP does. Datagrams may arrive out of order, appear duplicated, or go missing without notice. Avoiding the overhead of checking whether every packet actually arrived makes UDP faster and more efficient, at least for applications that do not need guaranteed delivery. Time-sensitive applications often use UDP because dropped packets are preferable to delayed packets. UDP's stateless nature is also useful for servers that answer small queries from huge numbers of clients. Unlike TCP, UDP supports packet broadcast (sending to all on local network) and multicasting (send to all subscribers).
Common network applications that use UDP include the Domain Name System (DNS), streaming media applications such as IPTV, Voice over IP (VoIP), Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) and online games.

V

Virtual LAN

A virtual LAN, commonly known as a vLAN or as a VLAN, is a method of creating independent logical networks within a physical network. Several VLANs can co-exist within such a network. This helps in reducing the broadcast domain and aids in network administration by separating logical segments of a LAN (like company departments) that should not exchange data using a LAN (they still can exchange data by routing).
A VLAN consists of a network of computers that behave as if connected to the same link layer network - even though they may actually be physically connected to different segments of a LAN. Network administrators configure VLANs through software rather than hardware, which makes them extremely flexible. One of the biggest advantages of VLANs emerges when physically moving a computer to another location: it can stay on the same VLAN without the need for any hardware reconfiguration.

VLAN

See Virtual LAN

Voice over IP

Voice over Internet Protocol, also called VoIP, IP Telephony, Internet telephony, Broadband telephony, Broadband Phone and Voice over Broadband is the routing of voice conversations over the Internet or through any other IP-based network.
Companies providing VoIP service are commonly referred to as providers, and protocols which are used to carry voice signals over the IP network are commonly referred to as Voice over IP or VoIP protocols. They may be viewed as commercial realizations of the experimental Network Voice Protocol (1973) invented for the ARPANET providers. Some cost savings are due to utilizing a single network - see attached image - to carry voice and data, especially where users have existing underutilized network capacity that can carry VoIP at no additional cost. VoIP to VoIP phone calls are sometimes free, while VoIP to public switched telephone networks, PSTN, may have a cost that's borne by the VoIP user.
There are two types of PSTN to VoIP services: -Direct Inward Dialing (DID) and access numbers. DID will connect the caller directly to the VoIP user while access numbers require the caller to input the extension number of the VoIP user.

VoIP

See Voice over IP

W

WAN

See Wide Area Network

Wide Area Network

Wide Area Network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad area (i.e., any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries). Or, less formally, a network that uses routers and public communications links. Contrast with personal area networks (PANs), local area networks (LANs), campus area networks (CANs), or metropolitan area networks (MANs) which are usually limited to a room, building, campus or specific metropolitan area (e.g., a city) respectively. The largest and most well-known example of a WAN is the Internet.

Wi-Fi

IEEE standard for indoor wireless connectivity. (see also '802.11')

WHISP

Wireless High-speed Internet Service Provider. (see also 'Wireless Internet Service Provider')

Wireless Internet Service Provider

Service providers build their networks around technology as commonplace as Wi-Fi mesh networking, or proprietary equipment designed to operate over licensed or unlicensed spectrum. Often they offer additional services, like location based content, Virtual Private Networking and Voice over IP.
WISP's are predominantly in rural environments where cable and digital subscriber lines are not available. WiMax is expected to become mainstream in the near future, bringing with it dramatic changes to the marketplace by making mobile data transmission feasible.

WISP

See Wireless Internet Service Provider

X

Y

Z